**Artificial intelligence and robotics mcq questions and answers**

**1. Depth First Search is equivalent to which of the traversal in the Binary Trees?**

- Pre-order Traversal
- Post-order Traversal
- Level-order Traversal
- In-order Traversal

Pre-order Traversal

**2. Time Complexity of DFS is? (V – number of vertices, E – number of edges)**

- O(E)
- O(V)
- O(V+E)
- O(V*E)

O(V+E)

**3. The Depth First Search traversal of a graph will result into?**

- Linked List
- Tree
- Graph with back edges
- Array

Tree

**4. Which algorithm is used in graph traversal and path finding?**

- C*
- A*
- E*
- D*

A*

**5. Branch and bound is a __**

- data structure
- type of tree
- sorting algorithm
- problem solving technique

problem solving technique

**6. Which data structure is used for implementing a LIFO branch and bound strategy?**

- stack
- queue
- array
- linked list

stack

**7. Which data structure is used for implementing a FIFO branch and bound strategy**

- stack
- queue
- array
- linked list

queue

**8. Which of the following can traverse the state space tree only in DFS manner?**

- branch and bound
- dynamic programming
- greedy algorithm
- backtracking

backtracking

**9. Which of the following is false in the case of a spanning tree of a graph G?**

- It is tree that spans G
- It is a subgraph of the G
- It can be either cyclic or acyclic
- It includes every vertex of the G

It can be either cyclic or acyclic

**10. Consider a undirected graph G with vertices { A, B, C, D, E}. In graph G, every edge has distinct weight. Edge CD is edge with minimum weight and edge AB is edge with maximum weight. Then, which of the following is false?**

- Every minimum spanning tree of G must contain CD
- If AB is in a minimum spanning tree, then its removal must disconnect G
- No minimum spanning tree contains AB
- G has a unique minimum spanning tree

No minimum spanning tree contains AB

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**11. Which search strategy is also called as blind search?**

- Uninformed search
- Informed search
- Simple reflex search
- All of the mentioned

Uninformed search

**12. Which search is implemented with an empty first-in-first-out queue?**

- Depth-first search
- Breadth-first search
- Bidirectional search
- None of the mentioned

Breadth-first search

**13. How many successors are generated in backtracking search?**

- 1
- 2
- 3
- 4

1

**14. Which algorithm is used to solve any kind of problem?**

- Breadth-first algorithm
- Tree algorithm
- Bidirectional search algorithm
- None of the mentioned

Tree algorithm

**15. Which search algorithm imposes a fixed depth limit on nodes?**

- Depth-limited search
- Depth-first search
- Iterative deepening search
- Bidirectional search

Depth-limited search

**16. Which search implements stack operation for searching the states?**

- Depth-limited search
- Depth-first search
- Iterative deepening search
- Bidirectional search

Depth-first search

**17.Strategies that know whether one non-goal state is “more promising” than another are called _**

- Informed & Unformed Search
- Unformed Search
- Heuristic & Unformed Search
- Informed & Heuristic Search

Informed & Heuristic Search

**18. What is the other name of informed search strategy?**

- Simple search
- Heuristic search
- Online search
- None of the mentioned

Heuristic search

**19. uniform-cost search expands the node n with the __**

- Lowest path cost
- Heuristic cost
- Highest path cost
- Average path cost

Lowest path cost

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**20. Which search uses the problem specific knowledge beyond the definition of the problem?**

- Informed search
- Depth-first search
- Breadth-first search
- Uninformed search

Informed search

**21. A heuristic is a way of trying _**

- To discover something or an idea embedded in a program
- To search and measure how far a node in a search tree seems to be from a goal
- To compare two nodes in a search tree to see if one is better than another
- All of the mentioned

All of the mentioned

**22. A* algorithm is based on _**

- Breadth-First-Search
- Depth-First –Search
- Best-First-Search
- Hill climbing

Best-First-Search

**23. Best-First search is a type of informed search, which uses ____ to choose the best next node for expansion**

- Evaluation function returning lowest evaluation
- Evaluation function returning highest evaluation
- Evaluation function returning lowest & highest evaluation
- None of them is applicable

Evaluation function returning lowest evaluation

**24. Heuristic function h(n) is __**

- Lowest path cost
- Cheapest path from root to goal node
- Estimated cost of cheapest path from root to goal node
- Average path cost

Estimated cost of cheapest path from root to goal node

**25. Greedy search strategy chooses the node for expansion in _**

- Shallowest
- Deepest
- The one closest to the goal node
- Minimum heuristic cost

The one closest to the goal node

**26. What is the evaluation function in greedy approach?**

- Heuristic function
- Path cost from start node to current node
- Path cost from start node to current node + Heuristic cost
- Average of Path cost from start node to current node and Heuristic cost

Heuristic function

**27. What is the evaluation function in A* approach?**

- Heuristic function
- Path cost from start node to current node
- Path cost from start node to current node + Heuristic cost
- Average of Path cost from start node to current node and Heuristic cost

Path cost from start node to current node + Heuristic cost

**28. In many problems the path to goal is irrelevant, this class of problems can be solved using __**

- Informed Search Techniques
- Uninformed Search Techniques
- Local Search Techniques
- Informed & Uninformed Search Techniques

Local Search Techniques

**29. Though local search algorithms are not systematic, key advantages would include __**

- Less memory
- More time
- Finds a solution in large infinite space
- Less memory & Finds a solution in large infinite space

Less memory & Finds a solution in large infinite space

**30. ___ Is an algorithm, a loop that continually moves in the direction of increasing value – that is uphill.**

- Up-Hill Search
- Hill-Climbing
- Hill algorithm
- Reverse-Down-Hill search

Hill-Climbing

**31. When will Hill-Climbing algorithm terminate?**

- Stopping criterion met
- Global Min/Max is achieved
- No neighbor has higher value
- All of the mentioned

No neighbor has higher value

**32. Hill climbing sometimes called __ because it grabs a good neighbor state without thinking ahead about where to go next**

- Needy local search
- Heuristic local search
- Greedy local search
- Optimal local search

Greedy local search

**33. Searching using query on Internet is, use of _ type of agent**

- Offline agent
- Online agent
- Both Offline & Online agent
- Goal Based & Online agent

Goal Based & Online agent

**34. Best-First search can be implemented using the following data structure**

- Queue
- Stack
- Priority Queue
- Circular Queue

Priority Queue

**35. Which is used to improve the performance of heuristic search?**

- Quality of nodes
- Quality of heuristic function
- Simple form of nodes
- None of the mentioned

Quality of heuristic function

**36. Which search is complete and optimal when h(n) is consistent?**

- Best-first search
- Depth-first search
- Both Best-first & Depth-first search
- A* search

A* search

**37. Which method is used to search better by learning?**

- Best-first search
- Depth-first search
- Metalevel state space
- None of the mentioned

TMetalevel state space

**38. Which search uses only the linear space for searching?**

- Best-first search
- Recursive best-first search
- Depth-first search
- None of the mentioned

Recursive best-first search

**39. What is the heuristic function of greedy best-first search?**

- f(n) != h(n)
- f(n) < h(n)
- f(n) = h(n)
- f(n) > h(n)

f(n) = h(n)

**40. Which function will select the lowest expansion node at first for evaluation?**

- Greedy best-first search
- Best-first search
- Depth-first search
- None of the mentioned

Best-first search

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